FODMAP Diet for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

 FODMAP Diet for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The FODMAP diet was developed by Australian Dietitian Sue Shepherd. It is intended to relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).


The FODMAP diet calls for meals that are free of "fermentable" carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are fermented by bacteria in the colon and cause symptoms such as the bloating, gas, and abdominal pain characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome.


Key points of the FODMAP diet:

Avoid foods that are high in FODMAPs;

a preference for foods low in FODMAPs;

Gradually reincorporate foods that are sources of FODMAPs to test gastrointestinal tolerance;

maintain adequate nutritional intake;


Monitor symptoms by following an appropriate reintroduction plan.

In 25% of IBS cases, a FODMAP diet based on carbohydrate-free meals is not effective in relieving symptoms. In fact, other factors can worsen these symptoms and prevent relief. This is the case of aerophygia, which increases the amount of air swallowed and causes gas.


Fodmap: Everything you need to know about dieting without Fodmaps

FODMAP is divided into three steps.


The first stage

Aim to avoid major sources of FODMAPs for 2-4 weeks or until there is a significant reduction in gut symptoms. This stage can last for up to two months. Then, you have to wait a few days without symptoms before starting stress tests.


The second step

This stage is the stage of consumption tests. It will be necessary to test only one food group at a time and only reintroduce one food group per week.


Ideally, the food to be tested should be reintroduced outside of meals to more easily identify symptoms, and never during a traditional meal so as not to risk food loss.


It is recommended that you test the same food two to three times a week, including a rest day between each test. It is also recommended to gradually increase the amount of food consumed during the week.


If mild symptoms appear, it is best to stop testing and switch to another food. The goal is to assess the tolerance of food sources of FODMAPs and the maximum amount that can be consumed without symptoms.


third step

This last step consists of gradually reintroducing well-tolerated foods during the tests. We can also try to reintroduce problem foods by finding the compatible portions while keeping the gut comfortable.


List of foods allowed in the FODMAP diet

Here is a list of foods allowed on the FODMAP diet. These non-vodumpa foods should be incorporated into meals that are free of fermentable carbohydrates and preferred to find the optimum level of intestinal comfort. During the first weeks, some approved foods will be preferred, and others should be avoided to ensure the effectiveness of the FODMAP diet.


the fruit

As part of the FODMAP diet, it is recommended to promote the consumption of fruits with low fructose content:


All citrus fruits: oranges, lemons, grapefruits, clementines, etc. ;

Exotic fruits: pineapple, banana, passion fruit, etc. ;

Berries and red fruits: strawberries, raspberries, cranberries, currants, blueberries, etc. ;

melon;

kiwi ;

Grape.

We will limit the consumption of fruit juice to 125ml per day, or ½ cup.


vegetables

As part of the FODMAP diet, it is recommended to prefer vegetables that are low in fructose and rich in starch, to enhance the absorption of fructose:


Starchy vegetables: potatoes, sweet potatoes, parsnips, etc. ;

Salad, lettuce, arugula, lettuce, endive, etc. ;

Cabbage: kale, broccoli, savoy, etc. ;

Leeks, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini and spinach.

Squash.

Beans and beans.

Dairy products are low in lactose

To overcome lactase deficiency, low-lactose dairy products or vegetable milk should be preferred:


lactose-free dairy products;

vegetable milk: almond, rice, soy or coconut milk;

Old cheeses cheddar, parmesan, gouda, etc. ;

sheep's cheese and dairy products;

yogurt made with soy, coconut, or lactose-free milk;

Whipped cream and coconut cream.


grain products

As part of the FODMAP diet, it is preferable to take certain types of grains because they do not cause difficulty during digestion:


sourdough bread

gluten-free bread;

quinoa, rice, corn, buckwheat, millet, sorghum;

oatmeal;

corn-based products: tortillas, cornstarch, polenta;

Rice products: rice cakes, rice noodles, biscuits, etc.


sweet products

During the FODMAP diet, some sugary products can be incorporated in plenty of moderation. We recommend, of course, choosing them low in polyols and fructose:


white sugar;

Brown sugar;

Jam without fructose

Maple syrup

chocolate ;

stevia (maximum 2 sachets per day);

sucralose;

Other recommended foods:

Meat ;

Poultry;

fish ;

tofu;

Oilseeds except cashews and pistachios.

Tea and herbal tea.

Spices and seasonings.

vegetable oils;


List of foods not recommended for a low FODMAP diet

For 2 to 4 weeks, it is recommended to eat meals without fermentable carbohydrates, ie without FODMAPs. These foods should be avoided until the bothersome symptoms are gone.


fructans

Fructans are oligosaccharides, and they are mainly found in the following foods:

melon;

sin.

nectarine;

apricot ;

nectarine;

Figs;

Pass ;

peach;

pomegranate;

garlic ;

an onion ;

shallot;

green leek

mushroom ;

salsify

cabbage;

Cereal products made from wheat, barley or kamut: pasta, crackers, couscous, etc. ;

Cereal bars and biscuits containing sweetening agents.


galactan

Galactans are also part of the family of oligosaccharides, and are found in the following foods:


Vegetables: Pumpkin, beets, peas, Brussels sprouts.

Oil seeds: cashews, pistachios.

legumes;

soybeans;

Cocoa consumption in large quantities.

Condiments: chickpeas, tzatziki, ketchup, pesto, sauces and seasonings containing garlic and onions.

fructose


Foods high in fructose that should be avoided on the FODMAP diet include:

fruits: cherries, dried or concentrated tomatoes, quince, figs, guava, mango, watermelon, apple, pear, fruit nectar, canned fruits and classic jams;

Vegetables: asparagus, artichoke hearts, sugar peas.

Sweet products: corn syrup, honey, fructose, candy.

Drinks: sweet wines, rums, liqueurs and port.


sugars

As part of a diet without FODMAPS, it is recommended to avoid lactose. The foods that contain the most lactose are:


Cow and goat milk.

fresh cheese

traditional cream

Classic Yogurt

polyols

Polyols can cause many digestive upsets in people with IBS, so they should be avoided on the diets free of fermented carbohydrates advocated by the FODMAP diet.


Polyols are found in the following foods:

fruits: apricots, avocados, black currants, cherries, melons, blackberries, plums, peaches, peaches, apples, pears, coconuts;

Vegetables: Mushrooms, broccoli, peas, sweet corn, and Brussels sprouts.

Sweet products: chewing gum, sweets, sweet chocolate.

Products containing sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalt, lactilol, erythritol and polydextrose.


FODMAP: Catering Scheme

Here is an example of a reintroduction plan to follow as part of the FODMAP diet, after the first few weeks of fermentable carb-free meals.


white sugar;

Brown sugar;

Jam without fructose

Maple syrup

chocolate ;

stevia (maximum 2 sachets per day);

sucralose;

Other recommended foods:

Meat ;

Poultry;

fish ;

tofu;

Oilseeds except cashews and pistachios.

Tea and herbal tea.

Spices and seasonings.

vegetable oils;


List of foods not recommended for a low FODMAP diet

For 2 to 4 weeks, it is recommended to eat meals without fermentable carbohydrates, ie without FODMAPs. These foods should be avoided until the bothersome symptoms are gone.


fructans

Fructans are oligosaccharides, and they are mainly found in the following foods:

melon;

sin.

nectarine;

apricot ;

nectarine;

Figs;

Pass ;

peach;

pomegranate;

garlic ;

an onion ;

shallot;

green leek

mushroom ;

salsify

cabbage;

Cereal products made from wheat, barley or kamut: pasta, crackers, couscous, etc. ;

Cereal bars and biscuits containing sweetening agents.


galactan

Galactans are also part of the family of oligosaccharides, and are found in the following foods:


Vegetables: Pumpkin, beets, peas, Brussels sprouts.

Oil seeds: cashews, pistachios.

legumes;

soybeans;

Cocoa consumption in large quantities.

Condiments: chickpeas, tzatziki, ketchup, pesto, sauces and seasonings containing garlic and onions.


fructose

Foods high in fructose that should be avoided on the FODMAP diet include:


fruits: cherries, dried or concentrated tomatoes, quince, figs, guava, mango, watermelon, apple, pear, fruit nectar, canned fruits and classic jams;

Vegetables: asparagus, artichoke hearts, sugar peas.

Sweet products: corn syrup, honey, fructose, candy.

Drinks: sweet wines, rums, liqueurs and port.


sugars

As part of a diet without FODMAPS, it is recommended to avoid lactose. The foods that contain the most lactose are:


Cow and goat milk.

fresh cheese

traditional cream

Classic Yogurt

polyols

Polyols can cause many digestive upsets in people with IBS, so they should be avoided on the diets free of fermented carbohydrates advocated by the FODMAP diet.


Polyols are found in the following foods:

fruits: apricots, avocados, black currants, cherries, melons, blackberries, plums, peaches, peaches, apples, pears, coconuts;

Vegetables: Mushrooms, broccoli, peas, sweet corn, and Brussels sprouts.

Sweet products: chewing gum, sweets, sweet chocolate.

Products containing sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalt, lactilol, erythritol and polydextrose.


FODMAP: Catering Scheme

Here is an example of a reintroduction plan to follow as part of the FODMAP diet, after the first few weeks of fermentable carb-free meals.


Week 1 Option 1: Avocado Option 2: Blackberry Polyols (Sorbitol)

Week 2 Option 1: Cauliflower Option 2: Celery Polyolate (Mannitol)

Week Three Option 1: Milk Option 2: Yogurt Sugars (lactose)

Fourth week Option 1: Peas Option 2: Beans Oligosaccharides (galactans)

Fifth week Option 1: Baguette Option 2: Couscous Oligosaccharides (fructans)

Sixth week Option 1: Dates Option 2: Watermelon Low sugar (fructans)

Week 7 Option 1: Garlic Option 2: Onion is multiple

Week 8 Option 1: Honey Option 2: Mango monosaccharides (fructose)


A typical example of a week of reintroduction of sorbitol:

Sunday

Symptom monitoring


Saturday

Symptom monitoring


Friday

10 pieces of black berries


Thursday

Symptom monitoring


Wednesday

5 blackberries


Tuesday

Symptom monitoring


Monday

3 black berries


Moving On: Our Other Practical Tip

Take the time to eat and chew well;

Do not use a straw to drink.

avoid chewing gum and other sweets;

avoid low-fat and 0% products;

replacing traditional cereal products with products made from oatmeal, corn or rice;

Prefer rice, quinoa, millet or buckwheat over wheat pasta and couscous;

Choose lactose-free dairy products;

Eat fruits with a low fructose content at the end of the meal, and not in isolation during the day;

Make sure you get a good amount of protein and fat at every meal;

Gradually reincorporate foods that are sources of FODMAPs and take the time to notice symptoms.

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