golf knee injury
Golf is a sport played all over the world and is rapidly increasing in popularity, and evidence of golf's popularity and success is its return, after 112 years, to the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.
In the face of this growing interest, several scientific studies have recently been conducted with the aim of identifying the major factors affecting golf performance and the major risk factors for injury.
In this respect, golf is a low-impact sport, and indeed many golfers practice this discipline as a form of exercise on a recreational level.
The social environment is also of great importance among the participants who play at this level. Golf is very popular among the older generations and is often recommended to increase activity levels and aid recovery after total hip replacement surgery. The knee (ATG) (McGrory et al., 1995).
However, the incidence of knee injuries in golf is comparable to high-impact sports such as basketball (Borowski et al., 2008). Acute injuries are frequently seen in golf, particularly in the lower back and knee (Gosheger et al., 2003).
According to various studies, the public opinion that has emerged tends to confirm the possible link between golf accidents and poor or inconsistent techniques that are repeated over time. Most scientific studies of golf injuries have focused on those related to the knee.
Major Pests in Golfers
Osteochondral fractures of the kneecap, stress fractures of the tibia, and meniscus tears are among the most common injuries in this specialty.
Studies have shown that older amateur players are more likely to have a knee injury than younger players (Fradkin et al., 2005), and the deterioration of previous pathological conditions is consistent with the results of several studies. Indeed, Gosheger et al. (2003) found that 31.3% of players, who had chronic knee pain before they started playing golf, said their symptoms got worse while playing the sport.
Effects of golf on young golfers
Most of the studies conducted to date have focused on adult golfers, and the effects of playing and playing at an early age have not been well documented. According to Cabri et al. (2009), young players are rarely exposed to conditions that increase the risk of injury to skeletal muscles or joints; However, this is not the only way to prevent these infections.
However, this statement may not be true as it was given for the high intensity of the new training programs offered. Therefore, some young golfers, especially elite athletes, may be exposed to excessive loading conditions. at risk of knee injury. In addition, surveys of groups of men and women did not provide consistent data on the potential risk of injury, regardless of level of play (McCarroll and Geo, 1982).
Brief review of golf studies
Data from studies suggest that injuries, regardless of knee condition, may be caused by different mechanisms; However, history and level of practice may limit them.The age at which knee injuries first appeared.
Golfers surveyed by Pat (1992) attributed their injury to poor pivoting knee motion, poor shooting technique, or inconsistent ground support. Other authors found that 95.7% of players believed that the knee injury was due to overtraining. In addition, other studies showed that ball impact (30.4%), tracking (38.5%) and swing phases were the most common times of injury.
Regarding these findings, McCarroll and Gioe (1982) found that 68.7% of golfer's injuries were due to repetitive swing practice.
- Movement patterns
- In this regard, during this movement, some movement patterns can be identified:
- Rapid knee extension that occurs with joint flexion between 0° and 30°
- Important internal tibial rotation
With low flexion angles, the activity of the posterior thigh muscles has no effect in effectively reducing the displacement of the anterior tibia, so it mainly contributes to the increase in joint pressure.
Strong quadriceps muscle activity contributes to increased joint load
In several surveys, the average age of injured golfers was very high, and one survey found that players aged 60–65, compared to younger players, were the first to be at risk for lower limb injury (Baker et al. ., 2017)).
Interestingly, an unofficial survey conducted by a former PGA Champion found that 55% of PGA players surveyed had experienced a knee injury late in their careers. This may be indicative of the link between long-term practice and trauma, moreover, 83% of the injuries were to the left knee and 17% to the right knee (Tweety, 2009). Unfortunately, this investigation did not reveal any information about the organ
basic. In general, it can be assumed that the interviewed specimen was from the right hand and that these lesions subsequently appeared on the opposite (left) knee. Finally, the effects of fatigue must also be considered when it comes to identifying risk factors for golf. Vandervoort et al. (2012) indicated that walking to cover game distances was a way to maintain a certain level of cardiovascular fitness. However, during a game, it can contribute to increased levels of fatigue, especially in older players.
Golf injuries and joint replacement
Golf is part of rehabilitation programs after surgery. Conversely, high-impact sports such as jogging and tennis are often discouraged or permitted. Orthopedic surgeons generally recommend golf as a rehabilitation activity after TKA.
Some studies have shown that approximately 15.7% of active amateur golfers after TKA experienced mild pain while golfing while 34.9% experienced pain after playing only in a study by Malone et al. (1996) 3 professional and 39 amateur golfers were interviewed with TKA after golf resumed, and it appears from this analysis that the professional players did not report any pain or disease during the following 4 years.
Golf-related knee injuries account for approximately 15% of all injuries, with injuries most common since most players are more susceptible to injury. However, it should be noted that the main mechanisms that lead to potential knee injuries while playing golf are not yet known or unclear in various studies. Regardless, high joint loading and complex movements can undoubtedly increase the risk of injury. Clinics, coaches, and players alike should carefully evaluate golf training or return to play if knee pain is after an accident or surgery (including total arthroplasty). ).